We’ve been expanding the collection. We have gotten information about places outside of the United States: Latin America, South Africa, Asia. We have restricted our ambition to one piece in each continent – simply to indicate the range of possibility.
Asia. Michael Douglass begins by noting the transition, in many Asian countries, from centralized, autocratic rule to a developmental policy, eventually devolved to the cities, so that in many places there arose contestation over such issues as the treatment of the poor – led by emerging middle class and reformist movements. Then at some point central governments were hobbled by fiscal crisis and austerity policies, so that cities became the arena for political
Latin America. Benjamin Goldfrank and Andrew Schrank, “Municipal Neoliberalism and Municipal Socialism in Latin America.” (2009) list 21 Latin American cities as cases of “municipal socialism,” created in the context of national democratization and devolution in the
PT [Worker’s Party] mayors simultaneously attempted to implement a variety of participatory programs including the participatory budgeting (PB) initiatives for which their cities are by now justifiably famous. PB is characterized by public debate and (to a greater or lesser extent) determination of municipal investment and spending priorities and is perhaps most often associated with Porto Alegre, arguably the most successful case of municipal socialism in Brazil.
Africa. What of Africa? We have seen little evidence, except for the tantalizing suggestion from Xolela Mangcu of abortive progressivism in the wake of the emergence of the African National Congress as a legitimate municipal governing force at the end of Apartheid in the early 1990s, and a research effort by Claudia Gbaffou and Rasheed Sedat, apparently in process as we write. 
 Mike Douglass. “The Rise of Progressive Cities for Human and Planetary Flourishing – A Global Perspective on Asia’s Urban Transition.” Paper presented to the International Symposium on Making a Progressive City: Seoul’s Experience and Beyond. Organized by The Seoul Institute, Seoul, S. Korea, 15‐16 October 2015.
 Douglass, “The Rise of Progressive Cities…”, p. 2
”The Rise of Progressive Cities…”, p. 12.
 Cho, Myung-Rae. “A Progressive City in the Making? – The Seoul Experience.” Paper prepared for the International Symposium on Making a Progressive City: Seoul’s Experience and Beyond, organized by the Seoul Institute, Seoul, Korea, 15–16 October 2015, p. 9.
 Benjamin Goldfrank and Andrew Schrank, “Municipal neoliberalism and municipal socialism in Latin America.” International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, Vol. 33, No. 2 (June 2009), pp. 443-62. There is a substantial literature on Latin American city politics and so there are drawbacks using one article to characterize the experience of 21 cities or of a continent. Still, it seems a remarkable piece, as are Goldfrank’s other works, including the recent Deepening Local Democracy in Latin America (University Park, PA: Penn State University Press, 2011).
 Claire Bénit-Gbaffou & Rashid Seedat. Post apartheid Johannesburg planners tell their stories. Draft 18 October 2012.